Foldable saw out of greenwood

Some years ago I made my own Bo Weslien style model of a foldable outdoor saw at Sjövik Folkhögskola. Having no machines at hand back home for high precision wood engineering I was thinking of making a copy of it out of green wood and traditional tools: a froe for splitting a small log to get both handles; axe, shavehorse and drawknife for shaping the handles, carving knife for making the peg, tenon cutter for cutting both tenons at the end of the cross brace that goes into both handles.

Tools from front to back: Japanese saw, froe, carving knife, drawknife, axe, tenon cutter

Freshly cut maple wood was at hand. The two slots for taking up the sawblade I did with a Japanese saw. The exact position of the holes for the sawblade are given on the packing. Holes need to be only slighthly smaller than the fullthread screws to avoid splitting! Before screwing them in, fix the sawblade with a bolt or a nail opposite where the screw goes in, otherwise it might not meet the exact position in the slot which can result in splitting the handle. While screwing the handle part with the slot needs to be clamped to avoid splitting. Two more holes to take up the Paracord and the sawblade can be tightened. Sawing with it is light work and great fun.

Sjövik´s Model (in the back) and first non-foldable greenwood version in the front
Carving the peg with an axe

A good project with children or youths. Once you have gone through the tricky bits it might only take about 3 hours to make such a saw out of greenwood.

Making it foldable…

meant a bit of measuring and calculating for a shorter crossbar. I shaved a log of Robinia wood one side to take up the tenons. I also shaved the tips of the crossbar for which I used a log of maple. Then I cut the tenons and did the slots for the blade. To protect the blade when folding the saw I needed to cut a slot all along the back of the handle (last picture). I used a Japanese whaleback saw for that. Handles could have been a tad longer and I should have sticked to the position of the holes as in my first try. Next time.

All in all it is quite compact now but it feels a bit heavy for taking it on tour. I might get rid of some of the material by shaving the crossbar and handles. But in that case it would loose some of its rustic charme.

Animal Forms for pre-schoolers – Bird family

Let the children team up as bird parents or eggs/chicks. Help the “bird parents” build a makeshift nest from twigs, grass, or pillows, whatever you have available. Then place the “eggs” into the nest, have the children kneel there and make themselves very small.

Instruct the bird parents to warm the eggs with their wings (arms) and to include all the eggs (stroke over their backs). Tell them to listen very carefully, maybe the chicks inside the eggs will start chirping at some point. Time to hatch!

Newly hatched chicks must stretch their bodies after all this time cramped up in an eggshell. And now it´s feeding time for busy bird parents! The chicks are chirping and demanding food. You could provide some peanuts, raisins, or the like, but children can play make-believe even without those helpers.

After some feeding rounds you should encourage the chicks to try their own wings and fly about with the parents.

To calm all the excited birdies down, announce nightfall, when chicks and parents come back to their nest and sleep cuddled up, warm and safe.

My kindergarten group couldn´t get enough of this idea and we had to play bird family several days in a row! CT

Unravelling the mystery

On a walk near some flooded meadows and reeds I found an eggshell. I´m not sure if it´s from a swan or a goose, both are known to breed there and both the size and colour of the eggs can be almost alike.

But the time of year and surrounding tracks presented a nice puzzle – it was much too early in spring to be hatched already. More likely a predator had snatched it from the nest.

I´m actually quite frustrated with the pandemic and accompanying restrictions due to which my urban kindergarden group couldn´t go on a trip to the forest for more than a year.

But why not bring the mystery inside?

I thought this could prove an excellent opportunity to introduce field guides to the children. So, I took some pictures of the tracks and the egg and the next morning found my little trackers and me engrossed in a field guide and wondering what might have happened out there.

Our best guess is a racoon stealing and eating the egg. Maybe you can come up with a better idea? CT

Weaving a basket

For a nature reconnection day with our course we had the idea to weave little baskets for collecting herbs with our mentees.  

We were trying different materials. Blackberry vines seemed rather suitable after getting rid of the stings. For that we were using an empty tin in which we had drilled a 5mm hole into the base. We cut long blackberry vines and pulled them through the hole. While doing so we had to move the vine into all directions and the stings fell off.

Now we could bind the vines into a ring (wreath like shape). Then 4 rods were pulled from one edge to the other edge of the ring. They later formed the base for the grid. Start the next vine from outside crosswise to the 4 base stems and weave it in turns (alternating) over and under the base stems. At the edge just wind it around the wreath and secure the end within the wreath. Go on witn this until the whole base is covered. At the beginning you can define the shape dy moving the basic framework.

It was similarly by using hop vines whereas even here the more sturdy blackberry vines made the base grid.

Stinging nettle is a good material for weaving small baskets. I picked some taller grown nettles with gloves and took off the leaves. They can later be used for tea or soup. After that I beat up the stems with a stone until they got soft. Hence the fibres broke and the stems could be bent or woven more easily without breaking. Again a ring was shaped and here I included a little handle. As for the other baskets put stems from one edge to the other edge of the ring and hide the ends. SG


Seize the opportunity! Or: Tracking for youngsters

Usually we get very little snow in my region during the winter. So when we found ourselves in a snow-covered world last week, the children in my kindergarten group were really  excited and we decided to go for a walk to a park in our neighbourhood. 
Under normal conditions this park is  quite dull but snow has some magical abilities. 
We found lots of tracks and the questions just bubbled up – who left them and where did they go? We had a good look at the tracks, noticing the balls, toes and claws – a wolf? A cat? More likely a dog. And these smaller tracks? Surely they were made by a cat? But look, there are claw marks, too… 
Soon I had a group of 3 and 4 year olds tracking first one dog across the lawn, then another, gaining insights and confidence along the way. What a joy to watch the little trackers with their red cheeks and bright eyes! CT

Teaching Idea: Meditation on the elements

When we were planning a pedagogic programme some of our course members sometimes had a hard time to focus on the task at hand. The pedagogic programme had the 4 elements for a central theme, so I came up with a corresponding meditation sequence to try and help with grounding and focussing our awareness and energy. Due to our season (autumn, late October) and rather chilly weather conditions I would suggest doing this outdoors standing upright in a circle facing inwards:

After an opening sequence of slow breathing, closing your eyes, centring your attention to your body and a short body-scan from head to toe, first focus on the element Earth. Feel your feet on the ground, feel the firmness and strength of the earth carrying and supporting you. Imagine the soles of your feet sprouting roots, extending downwards and anchoring your feet in the ground. Feel the power of the Earth flow from the tips of your roots up to your feet, your legs and further up to your whole body. Envision yourself strong and firm like a tree, rooted in the soil, sustained by mother Earth. Then let your roots go very gently.

Shift your attention to the Air and become aware of the air as you are simply breathing. Feel your chest and abdomen expand with inhalation and deflate with exhalation. Sense the air streaming in and out of your nose, throat and lungs. Smell whatever the air can tell you about your surroundings. With the next inhale envision the fresh energy of the air filling you and reaching far into your lungs, floating along the blood vessels through your body. When you exhale, envision your breath to carry not only the used air but distracting and interfering thoughts, too. Let them go and inhale again the fresh energy with a deep breath.

When you feel refreshed and filled with oxygen, shift your attention to Water. Maybe water is surrounding you in the form of rain, snow, mist, clouds, a brook or a lake nearby. Maybe water is not visible in itself, but abundant in plants, trees and even yourself. Depending on your easiest available water source focus on the sound of the water – a murmuring brook, rolling waves, trickling rain, rustling trees or grasses, maybe even your own pulse. Or feel the water in humid air around you, on your bare skin, under your feet. If those don´t work for you, put your fingers on the pulse point at your neck and feel your own blood pumping. This too is water. Focus on whichever sensation water is giving you and envision the power of flowing water washing over you and cleaning your mind.

Maybe at this point you will feel a little cold, so it is a good moment to focus on the element Fire. The sun is our biggest fire and always there to warm and energize us. Shift your attention to the middle of your chest and envision a narrow ray of sunlight shining exactly on this spot. Feel this tiny spot warming up und expanding to a larger spot, covering soon your whole chest and expanding further – up to your neck and head, down to your abdomen and hips, your legs and your feet, sideways to your arms, your hands and fingers. Savour the warmth covering and permeating your body and let it spread outwards to the people next to you, until you are forming a joint circle of warmth and light.

Keep some of that light and warmth inside your chest and gently let go of the intense focus. Take some deep breaths and let go, just be. Feel the earth beneath your feet, the air around you, the water flowing and the sun shining. Allow your senses to fill your mind slowly with sensations of your surroundings – the sounds, the smell, the feeling of your body. And when you feel ready, just gently open your eyes again. Stay for a moment and familiarize yourself with your group and your place before you proceed to the rest of your day.

Update: I offered this meditation in our last course lesson after the opening circle and all attendants were game. My, 18 people in a circle outdoors are a lot! We were standing in a meadow surrounded by forest, but near a clearly audible highway. Surely this would be easier in a quieter landscape or in smaller groups, I really had to remind myself to speak louder than I usually would. Some people experienced difficulties to engage deeply, but listened nonetheless and all were able to relax to some degree. Most appreciated at least part of the sequence and a few felt the energy of the elements intensively. Afterwards I perceived the group as quite eager to start their scheduled tasks and maybe even a little more focused. Thanks to all for being open and engaging! CT

Sustainability – use and re-use of broken things

This is the story of my first self-made spoon – or actually spork. It took me 2 days to finish it and I felt quite proud. Sure, it was a little crooked, but I had put some effort in it and let the texture of the wood be my guide.

I used this spoon to cook meals on open fire and it worked really well, so I was sad when it broke one day right at a knothole. But then I fetched my carving knives and found a way to re-use the broken pieces. Now I have a cooking fork and a tiny cup. CT

Think twice before you bin something!

Teaching Idea: Taste of the place – sensory connection to nature

If we want to deepen our connection to nature and our surroundings, we have to engage all senses. We use our visual sense nearly all the time and often even remember to listen and to feel, but to really address our reptilian brain and embed a place in our sensory memory, taste and smell are crucial aspects. Fortunately, there are always our plant friends coming to the rescue!

Boil some water, infuse a bunch of the local edible or medicinal plants and you can have a taste of the place which is unique in every place and time of year. Try a different mixture every day, get a feeling for the changing seasons and the natural abundance of flavours throughout the year. Blossoms, leaves, stems, roots, needles, fruits, seeds, seaweeds, mosses, lichens – let your curiosity be your guide.

Just take good care to avoid poisonous species! Gather only species well-known to you or cross-check for safety with naturalist guides. And of course, be extra careful regarding any handicaps or medical conditions in yourself or your companions which could be negatively affected by medicinal plants. CT

Teaching Idea: Black Tea Surrogate – exercise in self sufficiency

One of the aspects in wilderness pedagogics is self-sufficiency, the ability to make do with whatever your surrounding environment can provide.

Gathering and dispensing of various herbs for tea can go a long way to give you steaming cups of delicious herbal infusions, but some of us prefer some Assam or Darjeeling once in a while… Very little effort can help you transform a tasty herbal to something quite similar to black tea. Fermentation is the key!

Look out for Smallflower hairy willowherb (Epilobium parviflorum) or Rosebay willowherb (Epilobium angustifolium) and gather young leaves. There are no poisonous lookalikes in Europe, so this is a safe choice even for beginners.

For other purposes (medicinal or food) the whole plant can be used, but for substitute tea it is best to stick to leaves. Shred and crush the leaves a little to allow the sap to leak out. Keep the leaves for about 5 days in a closed plastic bag or glass jar in the sun to ferment and afterwards dry them in a shady place. Store dry or bring some water to a boil and enjoy your first cuppa! CT

Teaching Idea: Chinese Whisper with Deer Ears

Deer ears is a classic tool in nature awareness raising to extend your sense of hearing. Just put your hands behind your ears and form a bowl with each hand. You will be surprised on how much more you can perceive that way.

We thought of a variation to be done with groups (of children or youths):

Chinese whisper with deer ears.

How to play: All group members form a queue. This time put your hands to your head in front of your ears with the hand bowl facing backwards. The last person in the queue will start whispering a word to the person in front. The person in front then passes on what he/she has heard to her person in front and so on. After passing the queue check which word has been understood by the person first in the queue. AP